Composición de comunidades y filoespecificidad de ectoparásitos de murciélagos en paisajes agropecuarios de Veracruz, México.

Guillermo Orta-Pineda, Víctor Manuel Rodríguez-Valencia, Oscar Rico-Chávez, Diana Fabiola Zamora-Bárcenas, Ángel Rodríguez-Moreno, Griselda Montiel-Parra, Melisa Arenas-Montaño, Francisco Aurelio Galindo-Maldonado, Gerardo Suzán-Azpiri, Rafael Ojeda-Flores

Abstract


Se evaluó la influencia de la transformación antropogénica del paisaje por actividades pecuarias sobre la composición y especificidad de las comunidades de ectoparásitos asociadas a murciélagos, en ranchos ganaderos del estado de Veracruz. Se compararon sitios con diferente nivel de transformación del paisaje que incluyeron producciones bajo sistemas de pastoreo en acahual, silvopastoril y pastizal. Se capturaron 944 murciélagos de 23 especies en ocho unidades de producción pecuaria. Se realizó la identificación taxonómica de 1 433 ectoparásitos de 35 especies obtenidos a partir de 428 hospederos. Se realizaron análisis de diversidad taxonómica y especificidad filogenética entre las asociaciones murciélago-ectoparásito. La composición de las comunidades de ectoparásitos asociadas con Artibeus jamaicensis mostró diferencias significativas entre los tres niveles de transformación del paisaje. El acahual, que es el paisaje con menor transformación antropogénica, presentó los valores más altos de diversidad de especies de murciélagos y de ectoparásitos. La filoespecificidad de los estréblidos no presentó cambios significativos entre los diferentes tipos de paisaje del estudio. La consideración de factores antropogénicos que afecten la riqueza, abundancia y diversidad de los ectoparásitos, así como la relación filogenética con sus hospederos es esencial para profundizar en el estudio de las asociaciones hospedero-parásito.


Keywords


Abundancia, biomonitoreo, diversidad, fragmentación, riqueza

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.19136/era.a7n1.2059

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