Factores de riesgo asociados con placenta retenida en ganado lechero en el norte de México

Jose Maria Carrera-Chavez, Carla Marmolejo-Aldana, Angelica María Escarcega-Avila, Mateo Itza-Ortiz, Ernesto Orozco-Lucero, Eduardo Perez-Eguia, Juan Quintero-Elisea, Andres Quezada Casasola

Abstract


La retención placentaria (RP) es uno de los trastornos reproductivos más comunes que afecta a las vacas lecheras; sin embargo, los factores de riesgo no están completamente establecidos. El objetivo fue determinar la relación entre diferentes factores de riesgo para PR en el norte de México. Se utilizaron los registros productivos de 2,483 vacas Holstein en Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Las variables se analizaron mediante una prueba X2. Se calcularon las razones de momios (odds ratio; OR) y se realizó un análisis de correlación canónica para determinar la influencia de los factores de riesgo con RP y la influencia de RP sobre los parámetros reproductivos. La incidencia total de RP fue del 10.15%. Los factores de riesgo con mayor OR fueron nacimiento gemelar y nacimiento prematuro, seguidos por mortinatos y distocia. Ninguna temporada de parto incrementó la presencia de PR. La presencia de PR no aumentó la presencia de metritis. El análisis de correlación canónica fue significativo para parto gemelar, mortinatos, nacimiento prematuro y distocia, pero no para la temporada de parto. Existe una correlación significativa de PR con la cantidad de servicios para lograr gestación, el número de lactancias y los días en leche. En conclusión, los factores de riesgo parto gemelar, parto prematuro, mortinatos, distocia y edad de la vaca afectan la incidencia de RP, mientras que la temporada de parto no predispone a la presentación de esta alteración. PR no aumenta la presencia de metritis o la cantidad de servicios, pero reduce los días en leche.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.19136/era.a6n18.2070

ECOSISTEMAS Y RECURSOS AGROPECUARIOS(ECOSYSTEMS AND AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES), Year 6, Issue 16, January-April 2019, is a triannual journal edited, published and distributed by the Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco, Av. Universidad s/n, Zona de la Cultura, Col. Magisterial, Villahermosa, Centro, Tabasco, CP. 86040, Tel (993) 358 15 00, www.ujat.mx, era@ujat.mx., era@ujat.mx. Editor-in-chief: Efraín de la Cruz Lázaro. Copyright No. 04-2013-120514213600-203, ISSN: 2007-901X, both granted by the Instituto Nacional del Derecho de Autor (National Institute of Copyright), with certificate of title and content No. 16540 granted by the Secretaría de Gobernación(Ministry of the Interior). Individual responsible for the last update of this issue was journal Editorial Assistant Lic. Misael Hernández Martínez, Av. Universidad s/n, Zona de la Cultura, Col. Magisterial, Vhsa, Centro, Tabasco, Mex. C.P. 86040; date of last modification, December 31, 2018.

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