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El control inmunológico: Una alternativa contra garrapatas del ganado bovino

Rodolfo Esteban Lagunes Quintanilla, Carlos Ramón Bautista-Quintanilla

Abstract


El objetivo fue realizar una revisión actualizada del control inmunológico como alternativa para reducir las poblaciones de garrapatas en los bovinos. La historia de las garrapatas de interés veterinario contiene varios pasajes a través del tiempo. Sin duda, la especie más importante en la ganadería es Rhipicephalus mi- croplus, la cual ocasiona pérdidas económicas considerables a la industria pecuaria originando la utilización de diferentes métodos de control para contrarrestar los efectos adversos causados por éste vector. Recientemente, el problema de la resistencia a los ixodicidas ha motivado el interés por el desarrollo de vacunas contra garrapatas, como medida sugerente de control para disminuir las infesta- ciones en zonas de alta incidencia e indirectamente bloquear la transmisión de patógenos al ganado bovino. En el desarrollo de vacunas contra garrapatas, se han utilizado diferentes criterios y metodologías para identificar proteínas específicas que puedan ser utilizadas como antígenos vacunales. El control inmunológico de garrapatas mediante la utilización de vacunas, es posible y factible, ya que producen una protección en los animales que se refleja en el desarrollo de las garrapatas, reduciendo las poblaciones de las subsiguientes generaciones. Finalmente, la implementación de programas integrados de control basados en la combinación de distintos componentes como las vacunas, contribuirá en un futuro a disminuir los problemas asociados por garrapatas, mejorando la producción y la salud animal de los hatos ganaderos, y a la vez evitar la contaminación del medio ambiente y de los subproductos derivados de los bovinos para el consumo humano.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.19136/era.a7n1.2263

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