Gradiente de humedad en el comportamiento agronómico del centeno cultivado en ambiente de zonas áridas

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.19136/era.a11n2.4052

Palabras clave:

Agua de riego, calor extremo, contenido de proteína, cultivo de adaptación, estrés abiótico.

Resumen

En zonas de clima árido y semiárido, la disponibilidad y la calidad del agua son factores críticos para el desarrollo de la agronomía. Para enfrentar el desafío, una alternativa para el aprovechamiento de este recurso es la implementación de técnicas eficientes y sostenibles como el uso de riego por goteo. El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar el comportamiento agronómico del centeno en condiciones desfavorables de agua y temperatura para determinar la efectividad de la estabilidad fenotípica en la Costa de Hermosillo, Sonora, México. Se sembraron dos genotipos de centeno bajo un diseño experimental de parcelas divididas (parcela grande: tres niveles de agua y parcela chica: dos genotipos de semillas obtenidas en ciclos diferentes). Se evaluaron las características agronómicas de la planta, las características fisicoquímicas del grano; y se determinó la significancia entre las distintas variables con un análisis de correlación. El análisis de varianza reveló efectos sobre la altura de la planta, el número de espigas y de granos, tamaño de grano, el peso de mil granos, rendimiento y contenido de proteína del centeno debido a los diferentes regímenes hídricos utilizados. Se obtuvieron entre 219-314 espigas por metro lineal, con tamaño de grano comercialmente aceptable (7.45-7.95 mm largo x 2.18-2.40 mm ancho). También se observaron valores de rendimiento altos (1.72-3.11 t ha-1), así como un excelente contenido de proteína (20.3-22.8%). Estos resultados demuestran que el centeno es un cereal versátil que se adapta a condiciones ambientales adversas como disminución en la cantidad de agua de riego y temperaturas extremadamente altas. 

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2024-06-11

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ARTÍCULOS CIENTÍFICOS

Cómo citar

García-Hernández, J. L., Sosa-Yañez, L. C., & López-Ahumada, G. A. (2024). Gradiente de humedad en el comportamiento agronómico del centeno cultivado en ambiente de zonas áridas. Ecosistemas Y Recursos Agropecuarios, 11(2). https://doi.org/10.19136/era.a11n2.4052

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